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Under normal conditions, diamond, carbon nanotubes, and graphene have the highest thermal conductivities of all known materials.

All carbon allotropes are solids under normal conditions, with graphite being the most thermodynamically stable form at standard temperature and pressure.

It does not react with sulfuric acid, hydrochloric acid, chlorine or any alkalis.

At elevated temperatures, carbon reacts with oxygen to form carbon oxides, and will rob oxygen from metal oxides to leave the elemental metal.

The three relatively well-known allotropes of carbon are amorphous carbon, graphite, and diamond.

Once considered exotic, fullerenes are nowadays commonly synthesized and used in research; they include buckyballs, The amorphous form is an assortment of carbon atoms in a non-crystalline, irregular, glassy state, not held in a crystalline macrostructure.

For example, graphite can be oxidised by hot concentrated nitric acid at standard conditions to mellitic acid, C Carbon sublimes in a carbon arc which has a temperature of about 5,800 K (5,530 °C; 9,980 °F).It is present as a powder, and is the main constituent of substances such as charcoal, lampblack (soot) and activated carbon.At normal pressures, carbon takes the form of graphite, in which each atom is bonded trigonally to three others in a plane composed of fused hexagonal rings, just like those in aromatic hydrocarbons.The resulting network is 2-dimensional, and the resulting flat sheets are stacked and loosely bonded through weak van der Waals forces.This gives graphite its softness and its cleaving properties (the sheets slip easily past one another).

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Graphite is soft enough to form a streak on paper (hence its name, from the Greek verb "γράφειν" which means "to write"), while diamond is the hardest naturally occurring material known.

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